? ⇒ atomic force microscopy

The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) belongs to the class of Scanning Probe Microscopes (Binnig et al., 1986; Binnig & Quate, 1986). The progress in the development of AFM has led to topographs, that reveal details in the sub-nanometer range and surface dynamics of biomolecules.  Since the Scanning Probe Microscopy has been introduced into the field of biology, the application possibilities have grown immensely, ranging from single molecule force spectroscopy (Müller et al., 2006), chromosome dissection (Thalhammer, 1997), imaging of protein in native state (Fotiadis et al., 2004), direct transcription by RNA-polymerase (Guthold, 1999), imaging electrostatic potential (Philippsen et al., 2002), etc.

(For general reading on AFM for biological applications: Fotiadis et al. 2002; Frederix et al., 2003; Frederix et al.; 2004; Fotiadis et al., 2005)